Voltage Multipliers and the Cockcroft-Walton generator. Jason Merritt and Sam Asare. 1. Background. Voltage multipliers are circuits – typically consisting of. Abstract—This paper primarily describes a Cockcroft Walton voltage multiplier circuit. The objective of the project is to design a voltage multiplier which should. 31 Jul Even though the half-wave Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (H-W C-W VM) is one of the most common ac-dc step-up topologies, VM.

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It is made up of a voltage multiplier ladder network of capacitors and diodes to generate high voltages. In Figure 10transient responses of VMs are shown.

In Table 1 summary of simulation and experimental results are given. However, in practice, the ripple waveform is slightly distorted due to the discharge pattern or nonlinearity, and its periodical transient shape is formed depending on the time constant of the circuit [ 20 ].

In the figure, the key parameters have been shown: Furthermore two diodes with breakdown voltage can build a diode with breakdown voltage. Then in VMs with twice voltage stress the number of capacitors is multiplied by four and that of diodes by two.

Compared to a conventional one Figure 1 it has two voltage sources two secondary windings and the same number of capacitors and diodes. Correspondence should be addressed to Mohsen Ruzbehani ; moc.

So in components count we should consider this matter. A modification to the classic CW multiplier, popularized by XXX, uses two charging stacks driven by out of phase input voltages.

Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering. As the number of stages is increased, the voltages of the higher stages begin to “sag”, primarily due to the electrical impedance of the capacitors in the lower stages. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Cockcroft–Walton generator

By simulations and experimental prototypes, characteristics of the topologies have been compared. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. With this method we can correctly compare the number of components, that is, the cost of construction.


In Section mu,tiplier experimental low voltage prototypes are constructed multiplker justify the results of simulations. The no-load output voltage is twice the peak input voltage multiplied by the number of stages N or equivalently the peak-to-peak input voltage swing V pp times the number of stages.

In steady state, in no-load condition, every capacitor in smoothening column is multipplier tothat is, two times of maximum input voltage magnitude. So in simulations and experiments the SCVM was omitted. Decades after invention of the Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier, it is still being used in broad range of high voltage and ac to dc applications.

It is shown that, due to the application, sometimes a simple and not very famous topology is more effective than a famous one. To understand the circuit operation, see the diagram of the two-stage version at right. In this section, by Saber Synopsys software, simulation results of previously discussed VMs are compared. It is known that the asymmetry of both input voltages and circuit elements can cause the ripple [ 21 ].

Therefore the ripple still exists; however, its magnitude decreases greatly. It means there are two choices: The number of stages is equal to the number of capacitors in series between the output and ground.

However, based on previously mentioned symmetrical behavior, it has lower voltage ripple and drop values. Therefore, the maximum value of output voltage is in which is the number of multiplier stages here.

To calculate the voltage ripple, we should consider the voltage ripple on every capacitor in smoothening column due to the load current.

Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The CWVM has the unique characteristic of imposing equal voltage stresses on every stage. Therefore, for those topologies which need one secondary winding, the voltage would be twice of those with two secondary windings. It must be emphasized that the voltage stress on components in topologies depends on the transformer voltage.

However, in this article, the CWVM is the subject, regardless of how it may be fed. Abstract Decades after invention of the Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier, it is still being used in broad range of high voltage and ac to dc applications. Therefore, if the stress on components of VM 1 is twice of that for VM 2in components count we can consider capacitors and diodes of VM 2 as basic components and multiply the number of capacitors of VM 1 by four and its diodes by two, to find out equivalent number of similar components.


The key to the voltage multiplication is that while the capacitors are charged in parallel, they are connected to the load in series.

Recently a new symmetrical multipliier multiplier has been proposed [ 1 ]. Introduction High voltage dc power supplies are widely used for many applications, such as particle accelerators, X-ray systems, electron microscopes, photon multipliers, electrostatic systems, lasers systems, and electrostatic coating [ 1 — 5 ]. These effects can be partially compensated by increasing the capacitance in the lower stages, by increasing the frequency of the input power and by using an AC power source with a square or watlon waveform.

View at Scopus M. However, in mobile apparatus and some low voltage applications, they still can be used. In this scheme, only one source one secondary winding is needed and due to the opposite direction of charge and discharge in positive and negative sections, output voltage ripple of each section compensates those of the other.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cockcroft-Walton waltin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

A Comparative Study of Symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton Voltage Multipliers

We know that a capacitor with value and breakdown voltage can be built by four capacitors with C value and breakdown voltage, that is, parallel connection of two series-connected ones.

For example, SPNVM with low components count and acceptable characteristics is an attractive choice which should not be ignored in such applications. The discussed matter of this paragraph should be understood carefully to know why the proposed comparison in this article is fair. Historically the original idea was proposed by Greinacher in This is the main reason of lower level of ripple in all symmetrical and multiphase versions of voltage multipliers.